By Mykola Novik

Passive Magnetic Resonance Subsurface Exploration (PMRSE) is an innovative technology of non-invasive subsurface investigations. It is developed by the Ukrainian scientist Mr. Mykola M.Novik who has successfully applied it in various projects in Ukraine and abroad since early 1990s. Since that time the technology has gone through many significant improvements.

PMRSE is based on a non-intrusive reception of natural electromagnetic fields of the Earth and extraction of a useful signal from electromagnetic noise using the method of stochastic resonance. The objects of investigations are any subsurface irregularities, both substantive and structural, with their unique resonance frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

One of the main strengths of the technology, which was successfully tested and validated, is its application for direct exploration of different kinds of minerals and investigation of contamination at sites polluted with different chemical compounds.

PMRSE measuring system applied for field observations is a hybrid biotechnical complex including electronic equipment and an operator of the complex who is connected to the equipment by means of special sensors. The principle of work of the PMRSE measuring system consists in achieving the state of stochastic resonance, which in turn is achieved by summation of the additive noise (noise of nervous and muscular tissues of the operator, noise generated by the equipment and the natural electromagnetic radiation of the Earth received by a directional antenna) and a reference signal of the preset frequency generated by the electronic equipment.

The electronic unit of the measuring complex is fitted with reference generators of electromagnetic waves, processor, built-in memory and GPS, directional small electric antenna for receiving signals of circular polarization, neurosensors, and connector for a standard computer port, laptop and other servicing and measuring devices. The electronic unit of the measuring complex is quite compact and convenient to work afoot, when needed. The electronic equipment of the measuring complex is used to run the remote measurements and record signals at a resonance frequency.

When searching for a specific substance, its resonance frequency used as a reference during measurements is determined beforehand whereas the physical value of the stimulating action needed to achieve the sensory threshold is calibrated at artificial models with different substance contents. This allows carrying out subsurface explorations of different kinds of minerals, chemical elements and compounds and presents the results in real concentrations of the substance of concern. Calibration tests are already performed for a wide range of substances and the experimental relationships between the signal intensity at a preset frequency and the substance content are determined.

Bedding depth of the objects of concern is determined using resonance wavelengths of radio frequency and a special calculation method.

All field explorations are carried out by a team consisting of two persons: an operator and his assistant. Field measurements can be done afoot and using any means of transport. The technology is available for work in any settings including industrial and urban areas as well as at sea.

The technology can be used in two exploration modes: mapping and sounding. While mapping allows exploring subsurface objects in plan, soundings explore subsurface objects in a vertical perspective.

The PMRSE mapping is performed by way of intersecting the objects (territories) under investigation along profiles or routes. The distance between profiles of investigations is determined based on the level of details required and accessibility of the territory. The frequency of measurements on profile has no limits except that it depends on the speed of movement when using vehicles. When moving along the profile one electronic unit can make records of one parameter at a time. The technology also allows to directly trace contacts of rocks, tectonic fractures, karst caverns, etc.

The results of mapping allow plotting of areal maps of mineral deposits, plumes of chemical contamination of underground water and soil in form of projections on the daylight surface or slice-maps at a set depth.

The PMRSE depth sounding, similar to a standard well log, allows to study a geologic section in a vertical or slanted projection and does not need well boring. Depending on the given tasks the soundings are performed in points selected arbitrarily or based on a net. Signal recording is performed according to a preset step of measurements from the ground surface down to a required depth or within a set depth interval. Explorations can be performed at the depth from 0 to 15,000 m. The resolution and the minimum step of measurements during soundings depend on the resonance wavelength of the objects of concern as well as resonance properties of the antenna and vary from 1-2 cm up to several decimeters.

In each selected point, soundings are usually performed for a number of parameters. To get a view of the geologic section the obligatory parameters for measurements during depth soundings for any project are density and moisture of rocks in their natural occurrence as well as a content of two or three rock-forming minerals. Additionally, the measurements of content of the substances of concern are carried out to the whole exploration depth or in a set depth interval.

The results of soundings allow the construction of lithologic columns, geologic sections, structural maps, maps showing bedding depths of underground water and other geologic models including three-dimensional ones.

The PMRSE technology has been successfully tested and validated for different kinds of geological investigations, namely:

  • exploration of oil and gas fields, ore deposits and other minerals;
  • exploration for underground water supplies, mineral water and determination of its chemical composition;
  • detection and mapping of tectonic fractures, karst and landslides;
  • exploration of chemical contamination of soils and groundwater, determination of the sources of contamination and direction of its migration;
  • investigation of engineering and geological settings for construction of buildings and structures;
  • investigation of gas contamination and watering of rocks during the recovery of fuel and other minerals prior to the advance of bottomhole;
  • monitoring of the process of well drilling (supervision of the location of a bottomhole in a deviated well during drilling, determination of the depth of penetration of clay mortar into the stratum, etc.);
  • monitoring of movement of water-oil and water-gas contacts when extracting oil and gas;
  • monitoring of the distribution of plumes of ground water chemical contamination as well as the lowering of ground water horizons when pumping out water and other investigations.

Should you be interested in conducting investigations using PMRSE technology the author of the technology will be pleased to discuss the opportunities for cooperation. The author of the technology also invites interested parties to take part in further enhancement of the presented technology and development of new equipment if you have experience in the development of geophysical equipment or technologies for making and designing electronic equipment or if you have interest in such works.

For more information, please contact:

Mr.Mykola M.Novik