"One of the most dangerous events in underground coal mining is unexpectedly encountering water inrushes from undetected abandoned mines in the same seam. The surest and most confident method is probe drilling either from the mine or from the surface. However, drilling is expensive and may even miss the suspected mine voids entirely by drilling through pillars. Many operators rely upon one or more of several remote sensing techniques for detecting mine voids. However, mine “voids” often are not air- or water-filled open cavities, but are collapsed, rubble-filled chimneyed columns in the strata."

Read Problems in Void Detection in Coal Mine Water Hazards paper by Francis S. Kendorski to further your knowledge. (D.O.)