Introduction

The following procedures are in use, or have been used, as part of ARD prediction programs to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from materials under natural precipitation conditions - i.e rainwater and snowmelt (meteoric water)

I would like to thank my colleague Brian Soregaroli, formerly of Klohn Crippen, for assistance in the preparation of this page.

 

METEORIC WATER MOBILITY PROCEDURE (MWMP)

Standardized Column Percolation Test Procedure

Editor's Note: This is the version of the MWMP proposed by the Nevada Mining Association in January 1996. 

1. Scope

The purpose of the Meteoric Water Mobility Procedure (MWMP) is to evaluate the potential for dissolution and mobility of certain constituents from a mine rock sample by meteoric water. The procedure consists of a single-pass column leach over a 24 hour period using a mine rock sample to extraction fluid (effluent) ratio of 1:1. The extraction fluid is Type II reagent grade water (1).

2. Reference Documents

2.1 Meteoric Water Mobility Procedure, Bureau of Mining Regulation and Reclamation, Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, 9/19/90.

2.2 Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th edition, APHA/AWWA/WEF, 1992, Method 1080.

3. Significance and Use

3.1 This procedure is intended as a means for obtaining extracts from mine rock samples. The extracts may be used to evaluate the final pH and release of certain constituents of mine rock exposed to meteoric events.

3.2 The pH of the extraction fluid used in this procedure is to reflect the pH of precipitation in the geographic region in which the mine rock is being evaluated (in this case, the State of Nevada).

3.3 This procedure is designed to mobilize potential contaminants present m the solids, so that the resulting extract can be used to assess leachate which could potentially be produced from mine rock in the field

3.4 This procedure produces extracts that are amenable to the determination of both major and minor (trace) constituents. When minor constituents are being determined, it is especially important that precautions be taken in sample storage and handling to avoid possible contamination of the samples.

3.5 This procedure may not be suitable for obtaining extracts from finely divided solids (such as clayey soils, sludges, mill tailings, etc.). An alternate extraction procedure may then be advised.

4. Apparatus

4.1 Extraction Device, PVC column of 15 cm (6 inch) O.D. of sufficient height to contain a minimum of 5 kg of minus 5 cm (2 inch) mine rock sample and sufficient additional height to contain applied extraction fluid should blinding (ponding) occur. (Approximately 8 kg of minus 5 cm solids per 30.5 cm of column height). For a 5 kg mine rock sample a 15 cm O.D. x 45 cm high column is recommended. Additional column height will be required for mine rock sample quantities greater than 5 kg. The bottom of the column must be sealed (bubble cap) and a solution discharge outlet situated above the sealed bottom of the column and below the "punch plate". A drawing of the extraction device is appended.

4.2 Glass Wool (inert) - glass wool is placed onto the "punch plate" before loading the mine rock charge into the column to minimize fines migration and onto the top of the mine rock charge after column loading to aid even extraction fluid distribution.

4.3 Metering pump or constant head device to insure constant rate extraction fluid application

4.4 Extraction fluid (influent) and effluent containers sufficient in size to contain liquid used during extraction. Containers must be covered to avoid possible contamination from sources outside the test apparatus.

4.5 Laboratory balance capable of weighing to 1.0 g.

4.6 Drying pans or dishes for moisture content determinations.

4.7 pH meter with a readability of 0.01 units and an accuracy of 0.05 units at 25 0C.

4.8 Filtration assembly device of a composition suitable to the nature of the analyses to be performed and equipped with a 0.45 m pore size filter. An assembly for prefiltration or centrifugation may be required if 0.45 m filtration is difficult.

4.9 Tubing - surgical or Tygon tubing sufficient in diameter and length for the extraction device assembly (pump, column effluent outlet).

5. Reagents

5.1 Water, Type II reagent grade - Water purified by distillation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, or a combination thereof, conforming to the specifications for Type II reagent grade water

6. Sampling (Field)

6.1 Field sampling should be accomplished to insure a representative mine rock sample is obtained.

6.2 The minimum quantity of mine rock sample required for the MWMP is 5 kg. At least 7 kg of mine rock sample should be submitted to the laboratory for feed moisture content determination, MWMP, and other potential analyses requested by the submitting company. Mine rock samples of up to 25 kg are appropriate for submittal.

6.3 It is important that the mine rock sample be representative with respect to surface area, as variations in surface area may directly affect the leaching characteristics of the sample. Mine rock samples should contain a representative distribution of particle sizes.

6.4 Keep samples in closed containers (bags, buckets) appropriate to sample type and analysis for transport to the laboratory.

7. Sample Preparation (Laboratory)

7.1 Remove mine rock sample from the container and blend by coning or rolling and obtain sample for feed moisture content ( approximately 1 kg).

7.2 Screen remainder (5 kg or more) on a 5 cm (2 inch) screen. Save minus 5 cm material for subsequent recombination with crushed plus 5 cm material.

7.3 After screening, weigh plus and minus 5 cm screened materials and calculate plus and minus 5 cm weight distributions.

7.4 Crush (may hand break) plus 5 cm material to just pass a 5 cm (2 inch) screen and recombine with the screened minus 5 cm material.

7.5 Thoroughly blend the recombined 100% minus 5 cm mine rock sample, and using the feed moisture content (7.1 above), calculate the dry weight of the sample to insure a minimum of 5 kg (dry weight) is available for the MWMP extraction (column percolation) test.

7.6 Load the 100% minus 5 cm mine rock sample into the extraction device (column) in a manner to minimize particle segregation and compaction.

8. Extraction Procedure

8.1 Adjust the extraction fluid application rate (2) such that the number of millilitres of water applied to the column in a 24 hour period will be equal to the number of dry grams of mine rock sample in the column.

8.2 Measure and record the initial pH of the extraction fluid.

8.3 Begin metering the extraction fluid onto the top of the mine rock contained in the column at the predetermined rate.

8.4 When a volume equal to the mass of dry solids in the column has been delivered through the column (assume 1 ml/g), cease application of the extraction fluid (3). Note: The mine rock charge will retain water so extraction fluid application must continue until the target effluent volume (1:1 solids to effluent ratio) has been collected This will require application time beyond 24 hours, but not to exceed 48 hours.

8.5 Thoroughly mix the effluent immediately. Then procure sufficient quantity for the required analyses (usually Profile I or Profile II).

8.6 Measure and record the pH of the extract.

8.7 Filter (4) the sample through a 0.45 m inert membrane to obtain extract for dissolved constituent analyses.

8.8 Preserve (5) the extract sample appropriately for the required analyses.

8.9 Allow the mine rock solids, after extraction, to drain until the surface of the sample no longer "glistens" and at least two minutes elapse between drops of effluent from the column

8.10 Remove the mine rock residue (solids) from the column and take a representative portion for residual moisture (6) determination

8.11 Blend and split the moist mine rock residue to obtain samples for additional analysis if necessary.

8.12 If it is evident at Step 8.3 that the particle size of the sample (finely divided solids such as clayey soils, sludges, mill tailings, etc.) is not allowing reasonable percolation of the extraction fluid to occur, aborting the extraction procedure and submitting the sample to an alternate extraction procedure may be advised.

9. Reporting (record and report the following to NDEP)

9.1 pH of extraction fluid (influent).

9.2 pH of effluent after extraction

9.3 Total dry weight of mine rock sample used for MWMP.

9.4 Feed and retained (after extraction and draining) moisture contents.

9.5 Time of contact in the extraction device.

9.6 Procedures (synopsis) used for MWMP extraction, effluent filtration, and extract preservation.

9.7 Results of Profile I or Profile II analyses on extract.

1. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th edition, APHA/AWWA/WEF, 1992, Method 1080.

Based upon data collected for wet depositions in Nevada, obtained from Desert Research Institute, University of Nevada System, Type II reagent grade water most closely simulates meteoric water in Nevada in terms of both composition and pH range. Personal communication, M.N. Shen with Rick Stone, June 1995.

2. The extraction fluid can be metered via variable speed delivery devices such as peristaltic pumps or diaphragm pumps. A constant hydraulic head device can be used wherein a single speed pump delivers the extraction fluid to an elevated vessel which is equipped with an overflow back to the extraction fluid reservoir. The constant head vessel is tapped at the bottom to supply extraction fluid to the extraction column. A variable pinch clamp or screw clamp can be used to control the rate of extraction fluid application to the column.

3. The effluent container can be calibrated so as to overflow after the desired volume of extract has been collected. For example, if a 5 kg charge of solids is used, a 5 l vacuum flask can be used as receiver. Sufficient inert glass beads can be added to the vessel to cause overflow when 5 l of extract has been received. Therefore a technician need not be available at the exact time the target effluent volume has been achieved.

4. If the effluent contains finely divided suspended matter, filtration may be difficult. It is suggested that in such cases filtration through a 0.45 m membrane be preceded by centrifugation and/or prefiltration using a larger pore glass fiber filter.

5. An aliquot for metals analysis must be preserved with reagent grade nitric acid to pH < 2. An aliquot for phosphorus and nitrate analysis must be preserved with reagent grade sulfuric acid to pH < 2. An aliquot for cyanide analysis must be preserved with reagent grade sodium hydroxide to pH > 12. All other analyses reported in Profiles I and II require only that the sample be stored without preservative at 42 deg C.

6. Residual moisture can be determined by placing a representative portion of the moist mine rock residue (following Step 8.9) into a pre-weighed beaker or similar vessel. The sample is then placed in an oven controlled at 1052 deg C overnight, or until the difference between weighings at 30 minute heating intervals is less than 0.1%. The difference between wet and dry weight and multiplied by 100 yields the percent residual moisture: [(wet wt – dry wt) dry wt] x 100 = %RM.

Reference

Nevada Mining Association (1996), Meteoric Water Mobility Procedure (MWMP), Standardized Column Percolation Test Procedure, Nevada Mining Association, Reno, NV, 5p.

 

 

 BRITISH COLUMBIA SPECIAL WASTE EXTRACTION PROCEDURE (SWEP)

LEACHATE EXTRACTION PROCEDURE

 

Editor's Note: This is the full version of the BC SWEP as detailed in the BC Waste Management Act. It was developed specifically for special wastes, not for materials tested in ABA work, and the leaching solution is acetic acid. For ABA work it is standard practice in British Columbia to use distilled water or 0.1 N hydrochloric acid as the extractant (Price et al., 1997, Price, 1997), at a 3:1 liquid:solid ratio and an extraction time of 24 hour.

1. Sampling

1.1 For wastes with 0.5% solids weight by volume or greater, collect a sufficient amount of sample to provide approximately 100 g of solid material using techniques which ensure that the sample is representative of the waste.

1..2 If the waste has less than 0.5% solids weight by volume, collect at least 1 litre of sample.

2. Equipment

2.1 Sieve, 9.5 mm mesh opening, stainless steel or plastic material.

2.2 Stainless steel filtration unit, 142 mm diameter, minimum 1 litre capacity, capable of sustaining a pressure of 5 kg/cm2, applied to the material to be filtered.

2.3 Membrane filter, 142 mm diameter, 0.45 m diameter pore size, made of synthetic organic material such as cellulose acetate, cellulose nitrate, nylon or polycarbonate and which is compatible with the leachate to be filtered. Teflon is recommended for organic constituents.

2.4 Glass fibre prefilter, 124 mm diameter 3 m to 12 m pore size range.

2.5 Vacuum filtration unit, 90 mm diameter.

2.6 Membrane filter 90 mm diameter as per Step 2.3.

2.7 Glass fibre filter 70 mm diameter as per Step 2.4.

2.8 Solid waste rotary extractor - a device that rotates the bottles end over end about a central axis through 360 degrees, with a speed of 10 rpm. The dimensions of the box will depend on the needs of each laboratory.

2.9 Structural Integrity Tester with a 3.18 cm diameter hammer weighing 0.33 kg and having a free fall of 15.24 cm .

2.10 pH meter, with a readability of 0.01 pH unit and accuracy of 0.1 pH units.

2.11 Cylindrical bottles, wide mouth, 1250 ml capacity, polyethylene or glass with Teflon lined cap for inorganic constituents; glass with Teflon-lined cap or Teflon bottles for organic constituents.

2.12 Cleaning Procedure

All glassware and equipment that comes into contact with the sample should be cleaned in the following way before each use:

2.12.1 Wash with a non-phosphate detergent solution.

2.12.2 Rinse twice with tap water.

2.12.3 Rinse twice with reagent water.

2.12.4 Wash with 10% nitric acids.

2.12.5 Rinse several times with reagent water.

2.12.6 Store bottles filled with 10% nitric acids, until ready to use.

2.12.7 Rinse several times with reagent water before use.

2.12.8 Rinse clean oven dried bottles with methylene chloride, followed by methanol, for organic constituents.

3. Reagents

3.1 Acetic acid, 0.5 N. Dilute 29.4 ml of concentrated acetic acids (ACS grade) to 1000 ml with reagent water.

3.2 Reagent water, Type IV (ASTM Specification D 1193). For organic parameters, the reagent water should be free of any organic substances to be analyzed (ASTM Type 1).

3.3 Nitric acid, 10% (v/v). Add 100 ml of concentrated nitric acid (ACS grade) to 900 ml of reagent water.

3.4 Nitrogen gas, pre-purified, scrubbed through a molecular sieve.

4. Separation Procedure

If the sample is not a dry solid separate it into its component phases using the following procedure:

4.1 Determine the dry weight of the solids in the sample at 600C, using a well homogenised sample. Use this weight to determine the amount of material to be filtered.

4.2 Assemble the filtration unit with a filter bed consisting of a 0.45 m pore size membrane filter and a coarse glass fibre pre-filter upstream of the membrane filter (per manufacturer's instructions).

4.3 Select one or more blank filters from each batch of filters. Filter 50 ml portions of reagent water through each test filter and analyze the filtrate for the analytical parameters of interest. Note the volume required to reduce the blank values to acceptable levels.

4.4 Wash each filter used in the leach procedure with at least this predetermined volume of water. Filter under pressure until no water flows through the filtrate outlet.

4.5 Remove the moist filter bed from the filtration unit and determine its weight to the nearest 0.01 g.

4.6 Re-assemble the filtration unit, replacing the filter beds, as before.

4.7 Comminute the sample, with a mortar and pestle, to a size that will pass through the opening of the filtration unit (less than 9.5 mm).

4.8 Agitate the sample by hand and pour a representative aliquot part of the solid and liquid phases into the opening of the filtration unit. Filter a sufficient amount of the sample to provide at least 60 g of dry solid material.

4.9 Pressurize the reservoir very slowly with nitrogen gas by means of the regulating valve on the nitrogen gas cylinder, until liquid begins to flow freely from the filtrate outlet.

4.10 Increase the pressure in increments of 0.5 kg/cm2 to a maximum of 5 kg/cm2, as the flow diminishes. Continue filtration until the liquid flow ceases or the pressurizing gas begins to exit from the filtrate outlet of the filter unit.

4.11 De-pressurize the filtration unit slowly using the release valve on the filtration unit. Remove and weigh the solid material together with the filter bed to 0.01 g. Record the weight of the solid material.

4.12 Measure and record the volume and pH of the liquid phase. Store the liquid at 40C under nitrogen until required in Step 5.13.

4.13 Discard the solid portion, if the weight is less than 0.5% (w/v) of the aliquot part taken and proceed to step 5.14. If not, proceed to Step 5.1.

Note: For mixtures containing coarse grained solids, where separation can be performed without imposing a 5 kg/cm2 differential pressure, a vacuum filtration unit with a filter bed as per Step 4.2 may be used. Vacuum filtration must not be used if volatile organic compounds are to be analysed.

5. Extraction Procedure

5.1 Prepare a solid sample for extraction by crushing, cutting or grinding, to pass through a 9.5 mm mesh sieve. if the original sample contains both liquid and solid phases, use the solid material from Step 4.13. The structural integrity procedure, Step 6, should be used for monolithic wastes which are expected to maintain their structural integrity in a landfill, (e.g. some slags and treated solidified wastes).

Note: Do not allow the solid waste material to dry prior to the extraction step.

5.2 Determine the moisture content of the de-watered sample, by drying a suitable aliquot part to constant weight at 600C in an oven. Discard the dried solid material.

5.3 Place the equivalent of 50 g dry weight of the de-watered undried material into a 1250 ml wide mouth cylindrical bottle. Use additional bottles if a larger volume of leachate is required for the analysis.

5.4 Add 800 ml (less the moisture content of the sample in me) of reagent water to the bottle.

5.5 Cap the bottle and agitate it in the rotary extractor for 15 minutes before pH measurement.

5.6 Measure and record the pH of the solution in the bottle using a pH meter calibrated with buffers at pH 7.00 and pH 4.00. The solution should be stirred during the pH measurement.

5.7 Proceed to Step 5.10.1, if the pH is less than 5.2.

5.8 Add a Sufficient volume of 0.5 N acetic acid if the pH is greater than 5.2 to bring the pH to 5.00.2.

Note: Maximum Amount of Acid: No more than 4 ml of 0.5 N acetic acid per gram of dry weight of sample may be added during the entire procedure.

If the pH is not lowered to 5.00.2 with this amount, proceed with the extraction.

5.9 Cap the bottle and place it in the tumbling apparatus. Rotate the bottle and its contents at 10 rpm for 24 hours at room temperature (200C to 250C).

5.10 Monitor, and manually adjust the pH during the course of the extraction, if it is greater than 5.00.2. The following procedure should be carefully followed:

5.10.1 Measure the pH of the solution after 1 hour, 3 hours and 6 hours from the starting time. If the pH is above 5.2, reduce it to pH 5.00.2 by addition of 0.5 N acetic acid. If the pH is below 5.00.2, do not make any adjustments.

5.10.2 Adjust the volume of the solution to 1000 ml with reagent water, if the pH is below 5.00.2 after 6 hours.

5.10.3 Measure and reduce the pH to 5.00.2, if required, after 22 hours and continue the extraction for an additional 2 hours.

5.11 Add enough reagent water at the end of the extraction period so that the total volume of liquid is 1000 ml. Record the amount of acid added and the final pH of the solution.

5.12 Separate the material into its component liquid and solid phases as described under the Separation Procedure, Step 4. Discard the solid portion.

Note: It may be necessary to centrifuge the suspension at high speed before filtration, for leachates containing very fine grained particles.

5.13 Calculate the amount of free liquid from Step 4.12 corresponding to 50 g of the dry solid material. Add this amount to the leachate from Step 5.12.

Note: If the analysis is not performed immediately, store separate aliquot parts of the leachate at 40C, after adding appropriate preservatives for the analytical parameters of interest.

5.14 If the weight of the solid portion in Step 4.1 was less than 0.5% (w/v), analyze the free liquid from Step 4.13; otherwise, analyze the combined solutions from Step 5.13 for contaminants listed in Table 1 of this Schedule that are likely to be present.

5.15 Report concentrations of contaminants in the combined leachate and the free liquid solution as mg/l.

5.16 Carry a blank sample through the entire procedure, using dilute acetic acid at pH 5.00.2.

6. Structural Integrity Procedure

6.1 This procedure may be required prior to extraction for some samples as indicated in Step 5.1. It may be omitted for wastes with known high structural integrity.

6.2 Fill the sample holder with the material to be tested. If the sample of the waste is a large monolithic block, cut a portion from the block measuring 3.3 cm in diameter by 7.1 cm in length. For a treated waste (e.g. solidified waste) samples may be cast in a form with the above dimensions for the purposes of conducting this test. In such cases, the waste should be allowed to cure for 30 days prior to further testing.

6.3 Place the sample holder in the structural integrity tester, then raise the hammer to its maximum height and allow it to fall. Repeat this procedure 14 times.

6.4 Remove the material from the sample holder, and proceed to Step 5.2. If the sample has not disintegrated, it may be sectioned; alternatively use the entire sample (after weighing) and a sufficiently large bottle as the extraction vessel. The volume of reagent water to be initially added is 16 ml/g of dry sample weight. The maximum amount of 0.5 N acetic acid to be added is 4 ml/g of dry sample weight. The final volume of the leachate should be 20 ml/g of dry sample weight.

Reference

Province of British Columbia (1992), Waste Management Act: Special Waste Regulation Schedule 4, Parts 1 and 2, Queen's Printer, Victoria, BC,  p72-79.

 

BRITISH COLUMBIA SPECIAL WASTE EXTRACTION PROCEDURE (SWEP)

MODIFIED LEACHATE EXTRACTION PROCEDURE

The Modified Leachate Extraction Procedure is identical to the Leachate Extraction Procedure except that:

 (a) Sections 3.1 to 3.4 inclusive are deleted arid replaced by:

"3.1 Reagent water, Type IV (ASTM specification D1193)

3.2 Nitrogen gas, pre-purified, scrubbed through a molecular sieve".

(b) Section 5.5 to 5.11 inclusive are deleted and replaced by:

"5..5 Cap the bottle and agitate it in the rotary extractor for 1 hour.

5.6 Add enough reagent water at the end of the extraction period so that the total volume of liquid is 1000 ml"

(c) Section 5.16 is deleted.

Reference

Province of British Columbia (1992), Waste Management Act: Special Waste Regulation Schedule 4, Parts 1 and 2, Queen's Printer, Victoria, BC,  p72-79.


US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

SYNTHETIC PRECIPITATION LEACHING PROCEDURE (SPLP)

TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC LEACHING PROCEDURE (TCLP)

 

As with the British Columbia Special Waste Extraction Procedure (SWEP) described above, the SPLP and TCLP were developed for use in the assessment of waste disposal facilities, rather than mining operations. The TCLP (USEPA Method 1311) evaluates metal mobility in a sanitary landfill, while the SPLP (USEPA Method 1312) was developed to evaluate the fate and transport of metals in an engineered land disposal facility from which municipal solid waste is excluded (Alforque, 1996).

The extraction fluid for the TCLP is a buffered organic acid (acetic acid), while that for the SPLP is an aqueous solution (of sulphuric and nitric acids) intended to simulate rain water. Consequently, the SPLP is likely to have a higher suitability for use in ARD testwork than the TCLP. Both procedures are described in EPA publication SW-846.

Reference

United States Environmental Protection Agency (1996), Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste - Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846), USEPA, Washington, DC.


AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING AND MATERIALS

SHAKE EXTRACTION OF SOLID WASTE WITH WATER (ASTM D3987-85)

This is an ASTM procedure for the leaching of solid waste that consists of the shaking of a known weight of waste with water of specified composition and the separation of the aqueous phase for analysis.

As with other procedures described above, this method was not developed specifically for use in the mining industry. It is probable that variations and modifications to the designated standard have been developed by those working in metal leaching and ARD prediction, such as the example given below.

Reference

American Society for Testing and Materials (1992), ASTM Designation: D 3987-85, Standard Test Method for Shake Extraction of Solid Waste with Water, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 4p.

 

MODIFIED TEST FOR SHAKE EXTRACTION OF SOLID WASTE WITH WATER

MODIFIED ASTM D3987

1. Materials

Dilution Water is to be water specified in ASTM D3987, adjusted to pH 5.5 by carbonic acid addition immediately prior to use.

Tailings solids shall be representative of the project material.

2. Apparatus

Agitator may of any type that meets the general requirement at ASTM D3957.

Containers for agitating slurry may be at any size compatible with the agitator apparatus and shall be clean, new, acid washed and rinsed before use.

3. Procedure

(a) Prior to selecting tailing solids for the procedure they shall be well mixed and tree of lumps or standing water.

Keep the material in pails, firmly closed when not in use and store in a cool location.

(b) Immediately after selection take a weighed quantity at well mixed tailings material and calculate the dry weight of solids and the weight of associated water front the given solids content.

(c) Add sufficient freshly prepared dilution water to give a 4:1 liquid to solid ratio (solids content of 20% by weight).

i.e. (Dry Weight of Solids in Slurry)/(Water in Slurry + Water Added) x 100 = 20 percent

Sufficient material should be prepared to almost fill the containers to be placed on the agitator.

(d) Place on agitator apparatus and run for 18 hours.

(e) After the completion of the agitation remove the surface water by decantation followed by pressure filtration or centrifugation (good water recovery is essential).

(f) Store all the water recovered without preservation or filtration in a single large clean carboy or else add equal proportions of each new batch or aqueous solution generated to all leachate storage containers used. Where preservation is required for analysis representative sub-samples should be taken and suitably treated and labeled.

Source

Unnamed Canadian Laboratory

 

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REFERENCES

American Society for Testing and Materials (1992), ASTM Designation: D 3987-85, Standard Test Method for Shake Extraction of Solid Waste with Water, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA, 4p.

Nevada Mining Association (1996), Meteoric Water Mobility Procedure (MWMP), Standardized Column Percolation Test Procedure, Nevada Mining Association, Reno, NV, 5p.

Page, A.L., Miller,R.H. and Keeney, D.R. (1982), Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2 - Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd Edn., American Society of Agronomy Inc., Soil Science Society of America Inc., p199-209.

Price, W.A. (1997), DRAFT Guidelines and Recommended Methods for the Prediction of Metal Leaching and Acid Rock Drainage at Minesites in British Columbia, British Columbia Ministry of Employment and Investment, Energy and Minerals Division, Smithers, BC, (April), 143p.

Price, W.A. and Errington, J.C. (1995), ARD Guidelines for Mine Sites in British Columbia, British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria, BC, 29p.

Price, W.A., Morin, K. and Hutt, N. (1997), Guidelines for the Prediction of Acid Rock Drainage and Metal Leaching for Mines in British Columbia: Part II - Recommended Procedures for Static and Kinetic Testing, Proc. 4th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Vancouver, BC, p15-30.

Price, W.A. and Kwong, Y.T.J. (1997), Waste Rock Weathering, Sampling and Analysis: Observations from the British Columbia Ministry of Employment and Investment Database, Proc. 4th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Vancouver, BC, 31-45.

Province of British Columbia (1992), Waste Management Act: Special Waste Regulation Schedule 4, Parts 1 and 2, Queen's Printer, Victoria, BC,  p72-79.

Sobek, A.A., Schuller, W.A., Freeman, J.R. and Smith, R.M. (1978), Field and Laboratory Methods Applicable to Overburden and Minesoils, Report EPA-600/2-78-054, U.S. National Technical Information Service Report PB-280 495.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1996), Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste - Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846), USEPA, Washington, DC.

 


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