Author notes and acknowledgements

These web pages were composed by Dr. André (Dr. Swamp) Sobolewski. The author wishes to acknowledge the kindness, encouragement, and contributions of (the indefatigable) Bob Kleinmann from the United States DOE and of Doug Kepler with Damoriscotta.

Dr. Sobolewski completed his Ph.D. in Microbiology from the University of Brtish Columbia in 1987. For 20 years, he operated his company Microbial Technolgies, Inc., an environmental consulting firm. He now works as a Water Treatment Specialist at AMEC.

Dr. Sobolewski has developed passive treatment systems for industrial wastewater for the Petrochemical, Forest, and (Mining) primarily industries, as well as for treatment of landfill leachate. He evaluated remedial options at several mine sites with ARD problems, starting in 1989 with a pilot-scale treatment wetland study at Noranda’s Bell Copper Mine. Other mine sites investigated for passive treatment of ARD include the Ekati, Eskay Creek, Faro, Golden Sunlight, Island Copper, Mt Washington, Silver Butte, United Keno Hill (including discharges from Bellekeno, Galkeno and Silver King Mines, and the mining complex’s tailings pond), Tom Valley, Tulsequah Chief, and Wismut Nordhalde Mines. Most investigations included field work and laboratory/pilot-scale studies, but two projects resulted in the development and application of full-scale treatment systems: the in-pond treatment system at Island Copper Mine and the passive bioreactor at the Tulsequah Chief Mine.

He also investigated and/or designed passive systems treating neutral mine drainage, including contaminated drainage at the Antamina Mine (2 ha wetland treating TSS, zinc), Campbell Mine (9 ha wetland treating ammonia and copper), Cluff Lake Mine (natural wetland treating uranium), Ekati Mine (land application system for ammonia and nitrate removal for the Fox and Misery pits), Jericho Mine (land application system for ammonia and nitrate), and Smoky River Mine (bioreactor for selenium removal). He also developed treatment wetlands for landfill leachate and runoff from logyards at lumber mills and dryland sorts.

Dr. Sobolewski has conducted scientific research and published extensively on this subject, both in the Scientific and Technical literature. He has provided peer reviews for scientific manuscripts and grant applications and delivered short-courses on the subject.

You can contact him by email at

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Last modified July 15, 2009